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语法难点精析之被分隔的定语从句
http://www.cso365.com  2006-4-17 8:30:07   第二教育网  
      定语从句一般紧接被它所修饰的先行词;但有时候它和先行词之间有可能插入其他成分,使它与先行词分隔开来,这种定语从句叫作被分隔的定语从句,在阅读文章时会经常遇到这种情况,在阅读是要注意识别先行词的修饰对象。
  
  一般说来,定语从句被分割开来大致有以下三种:
  
  ①在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个状语。
  
  如:There are many thousands of stars in the sky that are like the sun.
  
  在太空中有成千上万的象太阳般的星星。
  
  乍一看,that引导的定语从句在名词sky的后面,似乎应该是修饰sky的。但仔细一想,”不对啊,天空怎么能象太阳呢?“,原来that引导的定语从句被in the sky这个地点状语分隔开来,修饰中心词stars。
  
  ②在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个定语。
  
  如:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace?
  
  你还记得吗,十年前的一天下午,我来到你家,找你借了一条钻石项链?
  
  when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace实际上是修饰afternoon而不是修饰 years。ten years ago 实际上是定语后置修饰afternoon。
  
  ③先行词与定语从句被谓语分隔开来。此时,先行词通常是句子的主语,因定语从句较长,主句谓语较短,为使句子平衡,常将定语从句移至谓语之后
  
  如:A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.
  
  明天,新(男)老师将来较你德语。
  
  【语法难点精析之besides,but,except,exept for,excepting,apart from的区别】
  
  (1) besides与except
  
  前者表示"除...以外,还有...";后者表示"从整体中除去..."
  
  这个大家都知道,就不举例子了.
  
  (2)except与except for
  
  a.除去的和非除去的是同类事物,用except
  
  eg:
  
  All the essays are well written except Nelson"s.
  
  Nelson的文章(除去的)和All the essays(非除去的)是同类事物,所以用except.
  
  b.除去的和非除去的不是同类事物,用except for,并且从语气上通常表示遗憾.
  
  eg:His essay is well written except for a few spelling mistakes.
  
  a few spelling mistakes(除去的)和His essay(非除去的)是不同类的事物.
  
  (3)apart from 具有多重意义:既可表示besides,也可以表示exept或exept for,还可以表示without的意思
  
  eg:
  
  Apart from the cost,it will take a lot of time.(=besides)
  
  The orphan had no one to take care of him apart from his uncle.(=except)
  
  He has done good work,apart from a few slight faults.(=except for)
  
  There can be no knowledge apart from practice.实践出真知.(=without)
  
  (4)excepting =except,但一般用于句首或用于not,without,always等词之后
  
  eg:
  
  Excepting his brother,they are all right.
  
  Everyone,not excepting myself,must share the blame.
  
  All of us,without excepting those who know more about the subject,should study.
  
  All my brothers com here every day,always excepting the youngest.
  
  (5)but与except同义,但but多用在every,any,no等和由这些词构成的复合词如everything,anywhere,nobody等词以后及all,none之后
  
  eg:
  
  The children go to school everyday but Sunday.
  
  They are all gone but me.
  
  You can get the book anywhere but here.
  
  There is no one but me.
  
  Who but George would do such a thing?
  
  【语法难点之too...to 结构表示肯定含义的情况】(连载中)
  
  【too...to 结构表示肯定含义的情况】
  
  我们知道too...to结构一般表示否定含义,意为"太...以致于不能"
  
  eg:He is too old to work.
  
  但too...to在下列情况下却表示肯定含义:
  
  ⑴当too前或to前有否定词构成双重否定时.
  
  eg:English is not too difficult to learn.
  
  英语并不太难学.
  
  He is too wise not to see that.
  
  他很聪明,不会不懂这一点.
  
  ⑵当too后是glad,pleased,happy,delighted,satisfied,ready,willing,kind,apt,good,true,easy,near,careful,well,early,delicious,eager,anxious等形容词或副词时.
  
  eg:They are too anxious to leave.
  
  他们急于离开.
  
  He is too ready to help others.
  
  他总是乐于助人.
  
  与这些词连用时,too前还常加上only,all,but,just,simply等副词,意思不变,因为这些词加上too后与very同义.
  
  eg:I"m only too glad to see you .
  
  见到你非常高兴.
  
  They are but too pleased to hear the news.
  
  他们听到这个消息,非常高兴.
  
  ⑶与cannot连用时.
  
  eg:You cannot be too careful(=You can never be careful enough) to do your homework.
  
  你做作业越仔细越好(=无论怎样仔细也不过分).
  
  ⑷当不定式在句中作定语或真正的主语时.
  
  eg:There are too many problems to be solved.
  
  有很多问题有待解决.
  
  It is too much to say that he is a fool.
  
  【语法难点精析之every表示”每隔“的用法】
  
  ⑴"every other+单数名词”
  
  意思是“每隔一。。。”
  
  如:every other day 每隔一天 every other tree 每隔一棵树
  
  ⑵“every+基数词+复数名词”或“every+序数词+单数名词”
  
  意思是“每隔。。。”(较英语数词少一个)
  
  如:every three days=every third day 每隔两天(或者译为每三天)
  
  因此every two days=every other day 每隔一天(或者译为每两天)
  
  ⑶“every few+复数名词”
  
  意思是“每隔几。。。”
  
  如:every few days(每隔几天)
  
  【语法难点精析之alive、live、living和lively的用法】
  
  ⑴ lively 有“活泼的、快活的、生动的”等意思,可以指人或物,可作定语或标语;但它没有“活着的”意思,而其他三个都有。
  
  如:
  
  Young children are usually lively.
  
  小孩子们通常是活泼的。
  
  He told a very lively story.
  
  他讲了一个生动的故事。
  
  ⑵alive、live、living都有“活的、有生命的”意思,与dead意义相反。但live通常只作前置定语,且一般用于动物;alive、living不仅可作定语(alive只能置于名词后;living一般置于名词前,也可置于名词后),也可以作表语。
  
  如:
  
  This is a live(=living) fish.(=This is a fish alive.)
  
  这是一条活鱼。(指动物,且作定语时,三者均可用)
  
  Who"s the greatest man alive(=living man)?
  
  谁是当今最伟大的人物?(指人,不能用live)
  
  The fish is still alive(=living)
  
  那条鱼还活着。(指动物作表语时不能用live)。
  
  ⑶living主要指在某个时候是活着的,而alive指本来有死的可能,但仍活着的。而且,作主语补足语或宾语补足语时,只能用alive;作比喻义(如“活像。。。”、“活生生的”等)解时,要用living。
  
  如:
  
  The enemy officer was caught alive.(作主语补足语,不用living)
  
  那位敌方军官被活捉了。
  
  We found the snake alive.(作宾语补足语,不用living)
  
  He is the living image of his father.(比喻义,不用alive)
  
  他活象他父亲。
  
  ⑷只有living前加the方可表示“活着的人”,作主语时,视作复数。
  
  如:
  
  The living are more important to us than the dead.
  
  活着的人对我们来说比死去的人更重要。
  
  语法难点精析之含义因有无冠词而迥异的短语】
  
  at play 在玩
  
  at the play 在看戏
  
  behind time 迟到
  
  behind the times 落在时代后
  
  by day 在白天
  
  by the day 按日计算
  
  by sea 乘船
  
  by the sea 在海边
  
  in front of 在...(外面的)前面
  
  in the front of 在...(内部的前面)
  
  in charge of 看护,负责
  
  in the charge of 由...看护,由...负责
  
  in secret 秘密地(作状语)
  
  in the secret 知道内情(作表语)
  
  in course of 在...过程中(作表语\后置定语)
  
  in the course of 在...期间(作状语)
  
  in red 穿着红衣服
  
  in the red 负债,赤字
  
  of age 成年
  
  of an age (岁数)同年
  
  on fire 着火
  
  on the fire 在考虑中
  
  on occasion 不时地;必要时
  
  on the occasion 在那时
  
  out of question 毫无疑问
  
  out of the question 不可能
  
  to death 十分
  
  to the death 到最后
  
  five of us 我们中的五人(部分)
  
  the five of us 我们五个人(全部)
  
  a yellow and white cat 一只黄白相间的猫
  
  a yellow and a white cat 一只黄猫和一只白猫
  
  in a faimly way 象一家人一样
  
  in the family way 怀孕
  
  die of cold 冻死
  
  die of a cold 感冒而死
  
  have words with 与...争吵
  
  have a word with 与...略谈
  
  keep house 管理家务
  
  keep the house 守在家里
  
  take rest 就寝
  
  take a reat 休息一下
  
  take place 发生
  
  take the place of 代替
  
  【语法难点精析之与-ly副词同义的介词短语】
  
  in angry= angrily
  
  in despair= desparingly
  
  in admiration= admiringly
  
  in common = commonly
  
  in fact = acrually
  
  in fear = fearfully
  
  in fairness = fairly
  
  in fun = funnily
  
  in grief = grievously
  
  in joke = jokingly
  
  in line = lineally
  
  in mercy = mercifully
  
  in public = publicly
  
  in silence =silently
  
  in spite =spitefully
  
  in sorrow =sorrily/sorrowfully
  
  in surprise =surprisedly
  
  with a smile =smilingly
  
  with satisfaction = satisfactorily
  
  with attention =attentively
  
  with care =carefully
  
  with courage =courageously
  
  with difficult =difficultly
  
  with emphasis = emphatically
  
  with fascination =fascinatingly
  
  with grace =gracefully
  
  with joy = joyfully
  
  with pride =proudly
  
  with pleasure =pleasantly
  
  with warmth =warmly
  
  out of breath =breathlessly
  
  【语法难点精析之用to do还是of doing作后置定语】
  
  不同的名词,对这两种后置定语的选择是有区别的,有的只能用to do,有的只可用of doing,有的两种都可以.现分述如下:
  
  ⑴will, willingness, suggestion, conclusion, decision, permission, agreement, refusal, determination, proposal, resolution等,一般用不定式作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  Mary has the will to win the first prize.(不用of winning)
  
  玛丽有获得一等奖的决心.
  
  He has drawn a conclusion to go abroad with his family.(不用of winning)
  
  他已作出了携家去国外的决定.
  
  ⑵hope, risk, possibility, impossibility, probability, intention, prospect, responsiblility, aim等,一般只能用of doing作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  In fact,tere is no hope of their winning the game.
  
  事实上,他们没有希望赢得这场比赛.(不能说for them to win)
  
  He will run the risk of losing his life to save the child.
  
  他将冒生命危险去救那个孩子.
  
  ⑶way, chance, need, necessity, right, freedom, power, opportunity,ability等,既可用不定式短语,又可用of doing短语作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  Their chance to go(of ging) abroad was lost.
  
  他们失去了出国的机会.
  
  He has the right to do (of doing) that.
  
  他有权那样做.
  
  【语法难点精析之用to do还是of doing作后置定语】
  
  不同的名词,对这两种后置定语的选择是有区别的,有的只能用to do,有的只可用of doing,有的两种都可以.现分述如下:
  
  ⑴will, willingness, suggestion, conclusion, decision, permission, agreement, refusal, determination, proposal, resolution等,一般用不定式作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  Mary has the will to win the first prize.(不用of winning)
  
  玛丽有获得一等奖的决心.
  
  He has drawn a conclusion to go abroad with his family.(不用of winning)
  
  他已作出了携家去国外的决定.
  
  ⑵hope, risk, possibility, impossibility, probability, intention, prospect, responsiblility, aim等,一般只能用of doing作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  In fact,tere is no hope of their winning the game.
  
  事实上,他们没有希望赢得这场比赛.(不能说for them to win)
  
  He will run the risk of losing his life to save the child.
  
  他将冒生命危险去救那个孩子.
  
  ⑶way, chance, need, necessity, right, freedom, power, opportunity,ability等,既可用不定式短语,又可用of doing短语作后置定语.
  
  如:
  
  Their chance to go(of ging) abroad was lost.
  
  他们失去了出国的机会.
  
  He has the right to do (of doing) that.
  
  他有权那样做.
  
  虚拟语气的重点是:
  
  1.一些常见的虚拟语气的句型或结构。
  
  2.虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式。
  
  3.主从句表示不同的时间概念、事实或假设情况,从而交错成为复合虚拟语气。
  
  4.含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气的表示愿望的虚拟形式。
  
  上述四个要点往往在完形填空或者阅读理解里面存在,尤其是每年完形填空都至少有一道直接考这方面的知识的题目,而在阅读理解里,我们掌握上述四个重点对于我们理解文章的大意和作者态度很有帮助,了解哪些观点是作者假设的、虚拟的,哪些是真实的,这样对于我们回答关于作者态度观点题很有帮助。
  
  下面我们将主要从上述四个方面来重点论述在考试中应该注意的问题。
  
  一、虚拟语气的常见类型和句型
  
  (1)由wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气
  
  A.用wish表示对现在的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:过去式(be动词用were)。
  
  B.用wish表示对将来的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would, could, might+ 动词原形。
  
  C.wish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为:had+动词过去分词或could, would + have +动词过去分词。
  
  The picture exhibition bored me to death; I wish I had not gone to it.
  
  ---“I let Joe borrow our radio for the afternoon.”
  
  ---“That’s all right, but I wish he would buy one of his own.”
  
  I wish that he weren’t so lazy.
  
  (2)had hoped引起的宾语从句中备用语动词形式为would+动词原形,表示一种过去未实现的愿望或令人失望的事。
  
  His father had hoped that his son would go to business with him, but his son became an artist later.
  
  (3)would (had) rather, would as soon, would sooner和would prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。例如:
  
  I’d rather you posted the letter right away. 我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。
  
  I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿可得太久。
  
  I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。
  
  (4)It’s (high, about) time that 句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。
  
  It’s time that something was done about the traffic problem downtown.
  
  It is high time that we put an end to this discussion.现在是我们该结束讲座的时候了。
  
  (5)as, 或者whether…or…谓语多用be的原形,引导让步虚拟从句,这种用法通常采用倒装结构:
  
  Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamivc, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.
  
  The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.
  
  (6)由连接词in case, so that ,unless, lest ,for fear that引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟形式,即should(might, would)+动词原形,例如:
  
  She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold. 她在那个婴儿身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。
  
  The bad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.
  
  (7) if it were not for…与现在事实相反, if it had not been for与过去事实相反,两个都相当于but for:
  
  If it had not been for his help(=but for his help),we would not have succeeded.
  
  (8) 虚拟语气用于as if(though)引起的方式状语从句和表语从句中,其动词形式与wish宾语从句的形式相同。例如:She often laughs spontaneously, and her good humor breaks out as brightly as if it were a part of the sunshine above.她常常发出发自内心的微笑,而且她那美好的情绪像天上一道明亮的阳光一样,常常流露出来。
  
  They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈着,就好像他们是我年的老朋友一样。
  
  She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。
  
  (9)其它各种句型, as though, suppose, had rather, supposing, if only等等
  
  If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.
  
  二、特殊形式的虚拟语气
  
  虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式,其虚拟语气的构成往往是由should(可省略)+动词原形that从句。
  
  A、 用于表示意愿、建议、命令、提议、请求等动词后的that宾语从句中,这类动词有:
  
  ask要求 advise建议 arrange安排 beg请求
  
  command命令 decide决定 demand要求 desire渴望
  
  determine决定 insist坚持 intend打算 maintain坚持主张
  
  move建议,动员 propose提议 object反对 order命令
  
  prefer建议 require 需要 request要求 resolve下决心
  
  recommend推荐 suggest建议 stipulate约定,规定 urge强调,促进
  
  vote公认,提议 decree颁布(法令) pray请求
  
  注意:这类动词后面除了可接that虚拟句以外,也可以接doing或者to do…来表达,一般情况下,意思没有什么差别。
  
  She advised that we should keep the gate locked.(书面体)
  
  She advised us to keep the gate locked.(口语)
  
  She advised keeping the gate locked.(较随便)
  
  B、用于It is+形容词或过去分词+主语从句中,这类形容词或分词有:
  
  advisable合理的 decided决定的 crucial关键的 appropriate恰当的
  
  determined决定的 commanded命令的 arranged安排的 essential紧要的,基本的
  
  complied遵照 anxious焦急的 imperative迫切的 important重要的
  
  desirable合意的 better较好的,更好 insistent坚持的 desired想要
  
  asked请求 keen渴望的 incredible难以置信的 adamant坚定不移的
  
  natural自然的 insisted坚持 necessary必要的 suggested建议
  
  urgent紧迫的 ordered命令 shocked震惊的 vital极其重要的
  
  possible可能的 strange 奇怪的 preferable (好一点) proposed提议
  
  requested要求的 required要求的 recommended推荐 resolved决定的
  
  probable(可能的) pity可惜,憾事 shame遗憾
  
  注意:这类形容词后面除了可接that虚拟句以外,也可以for…to do…
  
  来表达,一般情况下,意思没有什么差别。
  
  It is essential that he should be prepared for this.
  
  It is essential for him to be prepared for this.
  
  C.用于由表示建议、要求、命令、请示等含义的名词引导的表语从句和同位语从句中,这类名词常见的有:
  
  advice忠告 decision决定 demand要求 desire要求、愿望
  
  insistence坚持 motion提议 necessity必要性 order命令
  
  preference偏爱 proposal提议 pray恳求 recommendation推荐
  
  request要求 requirement要求 resolution决心 suggestion劝告、忠告
  
  例如:
  
  This is their resolution that extra-curriculum activities be made part of their school life.这是他们的决议:要使得课外活动成为他们学校生活的一部分。
  
  The motion that the remark of the last speaker be expunged from the record.该提议要求把最后一个发言的人的讲话从记录上除掉。
  
  三、混合虚拟语气
  
  有时主句和从句的谓语动词指不同的时间,这时需要用混合虚拟语气。一般来说,在这种情况下,主从句谓语动词指代的时间不同,所以我们又可以错综时间条件句,在这种虚拟情况,动词形式应根据实际情况灵活使用,在做这些题目时候尤其要注意每道题目的提示语:时间状语。绝大多数情况下,从句或者主句都有相关的时间状语,这是我解题的关键。
  
  If you that late movie last night, you wouldn’t be so sleepy.
  
  A. haven’t watched B. didn’t watch
  
  C. hadn’t watched D. wouldn’t have watched 答案选C。
  
  Many dead would now be alive if they have not attempted to return for something.
  
  Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.
  
  混合虚拟语气还有一种情况就是事实和虚拟假设的混合句,这样的句子不仅仅是时间的不同,而重要是事实和假设的混合。
  
  I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week.
  
  该句前半部分是假设虚拟,而后半部分是事实的陈述。
  
  Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time.
  
  该句前半句用的是假设虚拟,后半句主句也用的是假设虚拟(如果你去并且解释的话),但是后半句的从句用的是事实语气,因为“父母病了”是客观事实,故不需要用虚拟形式had been。
  
  四、含蓄虚拟条件句
  
  含蓄条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用其他手段来暗示存在虚拟条件。但是这类隐含式虚拟条件句往往都可以转化为if引导的条件句。常来表示含蓄虚拟条件的手段有:
  
  (1)介词或介词短语,如but for, but that, without, in case of, under more favorable condition等。
  
  the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today.=If there hadn’t been the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today.
  
  A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for 答案选B。
  
  But that she was afraid, she would have said no.
  
  (2)连词,如:so that, unless, in case, supposing, lest, provided(倘若……),for fear that(唯恐),in order that, on condition that, if only(要是……就好了)等。
  
  She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted.=if she listened carefully ,she might discover exactly what he wanted.
  
  If only I had more money, I could buy a car.
  
  (注:lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句中谓语动词多用should+动词原形,但可以不用虚拟语气,而用动词的陈述语气形式。)例如:
  
  The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him. 这位外籍教师说得很慢以免我们听不懂。
  
  Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow should occur.在使用此法时要小心谨慎,以免会发生溢流现象。
  
  (3)通过上下文及内在含义,句中往往有but, otherwise, unfortunately等类似转折词。
  
  I thought the children when we returned home, but they were still awake.
  
  A. were sleeping B. would be sleeping C. had been sleeping D. would sleep选择 B。
  
  (4)形容词及其比较级
  
  A more careful person would not have made so many mistakes.
  
  A less conscientious man wouldn’t have tried so hard to get this job done.
  
  (5)分词短语
  
  Having known in time, we might have prevented the accident.
  
  Born ten days earlier, the boy could have seen his late father.
  
  (6)动词不定式短语。一般intended/meant/hoped/wished/planned 或 was/were+不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished/+不定式一般式表示虚拟。
  
  I intended I should call on you, but I was busy at that time.
  
  To hear him speak French, you would take him for an Englishman.
  
  She would be stupid not to accept his invitation.
  
  It would be easier to do it this way.
  
  (7)名词短语和名词+and结构
  
  A judicious man would not have committed suicide.
  
  A diligent student would have worked harder.
  
  (8)独立主格结构
  
  All things considered, the price would be reasonable.
  
  (9)定语从句
  
  Anyone who had been in your position would have done the same.
  
  A nation, which stopped working, would be dead in a fortnight.
  
  (10)情态动词完成式暗示虚拟语气:
  
  I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.
  
  The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.
  
  (11)动词原形表示虚拟
  
  动词原形直接用在句子中也被看作是一种虚拟,最常见于正式文体中,动词原形一般用在条件从句中,有时倒装置于句首,同时这种用法也常见于独立句中表达愿望。
  
  God bless you!
  
  All magnets behave the same, be they large or small.
  
  She’ll be sixteen years odd, com May.(come May =when May come).
  
  If that be so, we shall take action at once.
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