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定语
http://www.cso365.com  2006-4-17 8:30:07   第二教育网  
 Ⅰ.限制性定语的18种类型
  
  A.用在名词前的限制性定语
  
  引 言
  
  1554 我们已经在第18单元研究了一个句子不能缺少的四大成分:主语、动词、宾语、补语。在本单元和20单元,我们打算研究一个句子可以缺少的二大成分:定语和状语。在语法上,它们只起修饰作用,可以省略,但在文义上,却很重要,能使句子更为充实。
  
  虽然下面所讨论的问题在词法部分已经讨论过,但这里将从不同角度更详细地加以讨论。例如我们已经谈过形容词、名词、介词短语、现在分词、过去分词等等,这些不同名称似乎表示不同东西,但都可用来修饰名词,因而可起同一作用,可以看作是同样东西,可以通称为定语(Adjectival Modi-fiers)。我们还讨论过副词、介词短语、不定式、状语从句,它们也各指不同东西,但都可以修饰动词,因此可看作一类东西,通称为状语(Adverbial Modifiers)。此外,在第17单元中我们谈到的名词、名词短语、动名词、名词从句等都可在句中作主语。
  
  如果从这个角度来考虑,句子结构就会显得简单得多,而所谓语法就不是很复杂的东西。
  
  1555 为此,在下面各章中,我们将把所有不同形式或类型的定语和状语都集中讨论,使读者对它们的相同点有所认识。此外,对某些修饰语的特殊用法,将提供大量例句。
  
  1556 和形容词一样,定语(任何修饰名词的单词、短语或从句)可以是限制性的(Restrictive)、补语性的(Complementary)或解释性的(Explanatory)。也和形容词一样,有些形式或类型的限制性定语可用在所修饰名词前面,有些用在它的后面。用在名词前的形式共有10种,它们是限定词(Determinatives)、描绘形容词(Qualitative Adjectives)、名词、物主代词或名词所有格、不定式、动名词、分词、地点及时间副词、各类短语、以及从句。
  
  1.限定词
  
  1557 限定词必须根据“单数或复数”和“可数或不可数”的情况修饰它后面的名词。
  
  An(or Every, Each, Another, This, That, Such a, A certain) egg(单数可数名词) is rotten.
  
  Both( or Several,Three, Few, A few,Those, These,Many,A large number of) eggs(复数可数名词) are rotten.
  
  Little(or A little,Much,A great deal of,A large quantity of,This,That)milk(不可数名词)was spoiled.
  
  Some(or No, An abundance of,A lot of,Plenty of,Enough,All,My,John's,The,Any,Such)eggs(复数可数名词) have been sold. Some(or No,An abundance of,etc.) milk(不可数名词) has been sold.
  
  If you have much money,you have many friends;if you have a little money,you have a few friends;if you have very little money,you have very few friends;and if you have no money,you have no friends.
  
  
  2.描绘形容词
  
  1558 He is a good boy. She has a clear voice.
  
  I like her gentle,graceful manner.We went into a dirty,dark,lonely temple.(一系列描绘形容词)
  
  It is a long,long story.He has a great,great power.(重复一个形容词来加强语气)
  
  It was a rainy and windy night. He sang a strange,funny and silly song.(由 and连接的两三个形容词有同样的重要性)
  
  It was a rainy but pleasant season. He sang a melodious but sorrowful song.(but后面的形容词比它前面的形容词重要)
  
  It was a pleasant though rainy season. He sang a sorrowful though melodious song.(though后面的形容词较不重要。因此这两句的意思和上面两句一样)
  
  It is a comfortable“fast train”. ( Comfortable修饰fast train,后两词为一整体)
  
  He is a sickly “old man”.We shall have a happy “new year”.Nobody cares about this commonplace “open secret”.
  
  I am amazed at the sheer nonsense (or absolute lie,total madness,outright arrogance)of this perfect fool(or complete idiot).(像sheer,absolute这类强化形容词,用在名词前能对它加以强调,但不宜用在be,seem这类系动词后,如:“His madness is total.”就不对了。)
  
  更多例子:a real scholar, a great supporter,a close comrade,a big fool, an old friend, a plain lie, an extreme folly, a clear failure, pure nonsense,an out-and-out conservative, utter confusion.
  
  This is a nice and(=wonderfully) cool place(or a fine and fast car).She is a rare and pretty girl.
  
  1559 Those(or The,His) three expensive round Swiss gold watches are lost.John's black curled walking-stick is kept in a sleeping-room of his.不同类型的形容词放在一起时各有不同位置。大体顺序是:指示词(或物主代词)+数词+描绘形容词+表示颜色或形状的形容词+分词+由专有名词变成的形容词+名词+作定语的动名词+名词。指示词如和物主代词或名词所有格连用,其顺序是:指示词+名词+of +物主代词或名词所有格。不过,有些人不完全赞成上述顺序。
  
  The last three acts(or The other two sides)are longer.
  
  The first(or next) two chapters are interesting.(这样用比 the three last,the two other等要好)
  
  Both(or All, Half)the(or those,these)visitors are my good friends.
  
  I paid double(or half,quarter) that price for it.
  
  He drank half a(or a half) bottle of water after he walked half a(or a half) mile.
  
  What a fool you are! You are such a fool!I saw many a fool.
  
  (A,the,this,that通常用在修饰同一名词的其他形容词前面,但放在both,all,half等词之后。)
  
  1560 He is a probable winner(=man who will probably win,而不是 winner who is probable),a quick thinker, a frequent offender,a heavy loser,a good swimmer,a bad speaker,a long,resident,a big eater,a hard worker.(这些形容词起副词的作用,修饰隐藏在名词里的动词。)
  
  He is a criminal lawyer(=lawyer expert in criminal law,不是 lawyer who is criminal), a natural philosopher(不是philosopher who is natural),a practical joker,a tragical dramatist,a yellow journalist,a historical novelist.
  
  White slavery(=business of white slaves)is forbidden.
  
  Old bachelorship(=state of old bachelors) was respected here.
  
  He is a public schoolboy(=boy of a public school,不是 public boy),an old bookseller(=seller of old books,不是old seller),a historical novelist.It is a dirty clothesbasket.
  
  He works with the Foreign Office(=Office of Foreign Affairs,而不是office which is foreign).He is in the sick-room(=room of sick men).The dead list(=list of dead men) has been published.He is fed up with his married life. He is on sick leave.His dying wish is unknown.He is a mad-doctor.They are playing a dead march.They learned the deaf and dumb alphabet.
  
  1561 They sold almost everything:leather gloves,silk hats,air guns,glass eyes,brass buttons,,gold rings,silver coins,stone jars,salt butter,ice cream,wooden chairs,woolen socks,earthen ware,oak(en) chests,lead(en)roofs,hemp(en)ropes,flax(en)thread,oat(en)bread.(表示物质的名词或形容词)
  
  It is a golden age(or a golden opportunity).He made me an airy promise,gave me an icy welcome.He made an oily speech.He gave me a glassy look and a wooden smile.He has an iron will but a stony heart. She has a leaden heart though she has a silvery voice.I love her silky manners. I can't stand his brazen impudence.(用于引伸意义的表示物质的形容词)
  
  1562 He did it in the early morning(=the early part of the morning),in the late summer,in the mid-nineteenth century.He has lived in West(ern)Germany)(=the western part of Germany),Central India, North(ern) Korea, Upper Austria,the Lower Danube,East(ern)Africa.(这些表示部分的形容词多用在时间或地点名称前)
  
  3.名词
  
  1563 名词可以用作定语,可以3种方式加在另一名词前。这两个名词可以写成一个词,如:fireplace,sunlight,armchair.两者中间也可加一个连字号,如:hour-hand,volley-ball,blood- letting.也可分写成两个词,如:arithmetic class,wedding march,birthday party.此外还有airline,airfield,airplane;air-gun,air-hostess,air-spray;air letter,air raid,air cover.有些这类合成词可以2种方式写,如:
  
  classmate,class-mate;daytime,day+time;gunfire,gun-fire;gunboat, gun-boat;或wet-nurse,wet nurse;fire- station,fire station;post-office,post office.
  
  有少数这样的合成词可以3种方式写,如:
  
  headmaster, head-master,head master.
  
  1564 没有严格的规律可以遵循,不过下面几点可供参考:
  
  如果这种合成词包含2个音节,它们大多都连着写:
  
  classmate handbag penknife gunboat
  
  lawsuit headache rainbow armchair
  
  firefly inkstand fireplace goldsmith
  
  但如果第一个音节需加以强调,或与同类其他东西加以区别,这类合成名词需要分开写。例如:Stone Age表示它不是Iron age或其他 Age;air mail不同于sea mail;sun bath不是sea bath或任何其他的bath;night school不同于day school.又如ice cream,marsh gas,law court,club fee,air raid,moon cake or germ charge也都表示是某样东西中的特殊的一类。
  
  1565 如果这些合成词包含3个或更多音节,它们大多都分开写:
  
  water pressure fire station chimney sweep
  
  birthday party trade mission paper mill
  
  water problem air transport barber shop
  
  railway regulations peace conference morning hours
  
  woman receptionist war council fountain pen
  
  不过有些可以连写,表示它们是一种独立的东西,并不与其他东西对比。例如:horsepower并不表示它是一种power,和其他power加以区别。下面的合成词都各自表示自成一类的东西:
  
  watermelon sandpaper sidesaddle
  
  newspaper schoolfellow battlefield
  
  waterfall silverfish dragonfly
  
  masterpiece fatherland lumberman
  
  1566 可以认为这种合成词只有两种基本写法。这两种写法很少可以互换。例如:rainbow不能写作 rain bow,armchair不能写成 arm chair, firefly不能写成 fire fly.另一方面 Iron Age 不能写成 Ironage, night school不能写成 nightschool, law court不能写成lawcourt.包含两个音节的合成词情况都如此。同样的,包含三个或更多音节的词更是如此,birthday party不能写成birthdayparty, paper mill不能写成 papermill, fire station不能写成 firestation.另外一方面 watermelon,newspaper,battlefield,waterfall,fatherland 都不能分开写。总之,一个词的形式和两个词的形式之间很少互换。
  
  不过这两种合成词中常可加一个连字号(虽然不是经常如此)。结果这种合成词常有两种写法,即不加连字号,和加连字号。在下面合成名词中连字号都可以不加进去。
  
  1. class-mate(or classmate) hand-bag pen-knife
  
  fire-fly ink-stand arm-chair
  
  gun-boat law-suit
  
  2.chamber-maid(or chamber maid) master-key
  
  motor-cycle shop-window story-book
  
  slaughter-house shuttle-cock weather-glass
  
  waste-basket whore-master silver-fish
  
  thunder-clap station-master summer-school
  
  1567 至于这种合成词的意义,第一个名词多表示第二个名词所表示的东西的地点、时间、目的等(在括号内指出)。
  
  skylark, homework,schoolfellow, city life(地点)
  
  night-club, morning star, Christmas gift(时间)
  
  gunpowder(=powder for gun), bird-cage,saltspoon; mousetrap, kitchen things, tea things(目的)
  
  insect bite,footmark, gunfire(来源)
  
  gingerbread, mushroom soup, ball-pen, oil-lamp(整体中一部分)
  
  mountain-top, finger-end, horseback,kitchen-door(包含一部分的整体)
  
  gold ring, paper tiger,silver cup,stone wall(材料)
  
  firefly,butterfly-table,pot-belly,iron-heart(相似)
  
  man-servant,billy-goat, cow-elephant(性别)
  
  pullman cars,Oxford University,the Diamond Restaurant (专有名词)
  
  story-book, fairy tale,newspaper(内容)
  
  birthday party, harvest festival,peace conference, war victim, hunger march.(原因,理由)
  
  water-power,hunger-strike,power politics, object lesson(手段)
  
  1568 一个形容词可以下列方式和一个作定语的名词并列于另一名词前面:
  
  these political and business affairs;his personal or party problems;either Medieval or the last century literature([形容词+连词+名词]+名词)
  
  money and other problems; art or scientific activities([名词+连词+形容词]+名词)
  
  that cold“skeleton hand”;the dirty dark “stone temple”.(形容词+作为整体的[名词+名词])
  
  the town “young men”; my silk “high hat”;a morning “conservative paper”.(名词+作为整体的[形容词+名词])
  
  more everyday manner;merely business grounds;purely government work;partly family viewpoint([副词+作定语的名词]+名词)
  
  1569 当名词用作定语时,通常都用单数形式,即使1)它有复数意义,2)前面有数词及连字号,3)后面有复数的主体词或4)若用作单独名词应为复数。如果它5)是不可数名词,或6)表示一个东西,自然只用单数形式:
  
  1)tooth-brush,orange tree, book-binder, head-hunting
  
  2) three-act play, thirty-page report, four-week course, five-mile trip,one-dollar book
  
  3)finger-tips,country-houses,fairy-tales
  
  4)checker board, billiard table, oat cake, green grocer, bowel complaint,slum clearance,gymnastic master
  
  5)coal mine,ash tray,oil well,music lover,fishing ground,reference book
  
  6) eyelash,table legs, picture frame,mountaintop, panhandle.
  
  1570 在下面情况下,用作定语的名词可用复数形式:1)是复数专有名词,2)通常都为复数形式,不加-s可能造成误解,3)在没跟有连字号的数词之后,4)在法律术语中,5)像gentlemen 这样的特殊词或6)跟随现在惯用复数的趋势:
  
  1)the United States Navy,Niagara Falls Power Company
  
  2) goods train, seconds-hand(但:minute-hand),savings bank, clothes-brush, newsboy, comics reader, salts bottle
  
  3) twenty pence books,a million dollars project, five thousand tons boat, six pounds sugar, five miles trip
  
  4) Samples Depot,Hotels Association,Excess Profits Tax,Highways Bureau, House Rules Committee, Companies Act
  
  5)gentlemen-farmers,women-teachers,Lords-Justices
  
  6)brains trust, works manager,public relations officer,reservations desk, stores check,sales department,glasses frame,sports jacket
   
  
  4.名词所有格与物主代词
  
  1571 We work for the country's good.A thirty miles'march is nothing to our troops.We shall have a three days' holiday.
  
  All night we heard the wind's sighing.His job is to clean the house.
  
  5.不定式
  
  1572 作为定语,不定式很少放在它所修饰的名词之前。如果这样用,不定式必须与其他词构成合成词,不定式与有关词之间需加连字号:
  
  his hard-to-be-governed passion,a soon-to-be-published plan, a never-to-be-executed project, the much-to-be-longed for peace, the ever-to-be-remembered occasion,the easy-to-see sign
   
  
  6.动名词
  
  1573 He is sitting in the smoking room (=room FOR smoking,而不是room that smokes). He is a dancing master.You must use better printing ink.
  
  更多例子:
  
  a walking stick,the boiling point, blotting paper, a laughing stock, a dining room,a swimming race, painting things
  
  
  7.分词
  
  a.现在分词:
  
  1574 It is an interesting(描绘)book.The flag of Japan shows the rising(经常发生的动作)sun.Did you see the burning (在谓语动词所表示时间里正在进行的动作)house?
  
  a sleeping(不及物动词的现在分词) child(=child that is sleeping),the flying fish(=fish that fly),the smiling women,the coming months,the following chapter, the retreating army,a beginning student
  
  a charming(及物动词的现在分词) girl(=girl who charms others) an amazing number, a puzzling question, scorching heat.
  
  a flesh-eating(名词+及物动词的现在分词)animal(=animal that eats flesh), heart-breaking stories, a self-sacrificing act,the record-breaking work
  
  ill-smelling(形容词+系动词的现在分词)things(=things that smell ill),a dirty-looking man,a high-sounding speech,a nice-looking girl
  
  the fast-retreating(副词+不及物动词的现在分词)enemy (=enemy that is retreating fast), a well-meaning man,frequently-occuring accidents,the on-coming tide
  
  
  b.过去分词:
  
  1575 You should not eat rotten apples (=apples that have been rotten). It is not hard to learn spoken English.
  
  a drowned(及物动词的过去分词) boy,my beloved son,a deserted village,a ruined palace, broken health, printed matter,the used car,a lighted candle
  
  well-dressed(副词+及物动词的过去分词)men(=men who are dressed well), ill-written books,a long-remem-bered story,a much-needed plan;his stretched-out arms,speeded-up education;a long-drawn-out war, not-yet-ended horror
  
  the unlooked-for(不及物动词的过去分词+介词) revolt (=revolt that is unlooked for), unthought-of accidents,unpaid-for merchandise,an undreamed-of achievement,an uncalled-for war,the longed-for novel,this yet-un-heared-of incident,the most-talked-about book
  
  the blood-stained(名词+及物动词的过去分词) hands(=hands that are stained by blood),the famine-stricken area,the love-stricken girl,hand-made paper
  
  faded(不及物动词的过去分词) flowers(=flowers that have faded),swollen legs,the vanished jewels,the exploded bomb,a retired officer,a drunken fellow,a learned scholar,his deceased partner,a professed Buddhist,a perjured man;newly-arrived(副词+不及物动词的过去分词) guests, a well-read man, out-spoken people, grown-up children, a well-behaved child
  
  8.地点或时间副词
  
  1576 地点及时间副词可用作定语,但放在名词前的时候不很多:the above statement,the downward movement,the abyss-ward drift,this here boy,that there girl,a far country,an inside story,an upstair teahouse,the outdoor game,their near relative,the in-patient,the out-patient,the up train,the down stroke;his now mistress,the once Mrs.Jackson,his late wife,his then opinion,the after events,my off time,the off season.
  
  9.各种短语
  
  1577 定语短语有许多形式:
  
  a kind of(限定词+kind或类似词+of)car,that sort of man,those funny types of houses,other brands of pencils a cup of(表示数量或数目、以of结尾的短语)wine,five bowls of rice,ten years of service,fifty miles of distance,a good deal of rice,a band of thieves,three broods of chicks
  
  that pig of a(= piglike) fellow,that idiot of a(=idiotic) woman,his ideal of a wife,my angel of a Jane,my hell of a life,this skeleton of a dog,a gem of a poem,a palace of a house
  
  knee-deep(名词+形容词)water(=water as deep as the knee),ice-cold hands;a far-sighted(形容词+名词 ed) politician(=politician who can see far),a one-sided opinion;the iron-hearted(名词+名词 ed) hero(=hero who has a heart like iron),a gold-laced skirt;a dark-brown (形容词+形容词) umbrella(= umbrella dark and brown)
  
  a wide-open(副词+形容词) gate,the all-important(=extremely powerful)money,ever-happy children
  
  a far-too-rapid(副词+副词+形容词)decision,a not-too-hard problem
  
  this by-no-means-easy(状语短语+形容词)job,the on-the-whole-fair solution
  
  a good-for-nothing(形容词+介词+名词)(= useless)fellow,the honest-to-God truth,lighter-than-air craft,a warmer-than-average welcome,his next-to-nothing profit a mile-long(名词+形容词)street,a four-week-long vacation,a ten-year-old ship
  
  the overseas(介词+名词)Indians, the underground rail-ways,an uphill walk,an upstairs room, his offhand easy manner;this under-the-table agreement,the up-to-date hotel, an out-of-season snowfall,the on-the-spot reporter,their out-of-door activities
  
  that end-of-the-century(名词+介词+名词)period, his man-in-the-street opinion,her woman-of-the-world way,a stick-in-the-mud fellow,an every-man-for-himself fight
  
  a word-for-word(名词+介词+同一名词) translation,hand-to-hand conflicts,room-to-room telephones,this day-to-day life,a face-to-face talk,the eye-for-an-eye argument,the year-by-year progress,their step-by-step aggression
  
  a stand-up(动词+地点副词) drink,a tumble-down house,a sit-down strike,the go-ahead nation,a hand-round sup-per,those stand-off people,knockdown arguments
  
  stay-at-home(动词+介词+名词) people,a come-by-chance child,go-to-meeting clothes
  
  push-button(动词+名词)warfare,take-leave visits, cut- rate tickets,a breakneck speed,my do-nothing days,her telltale face, a help-yourself fight;his eat-less-bread ad-vice,a let-it-alone attitude
  
  a yes-or-no(名词+or+名词)answer,an all-or-nothing settlement, a liberty-or-death war;kill-or-cure(动词+or+动词)medicine,a believe-it-or-not statement,his take-it-or-leave-it attitude.
  
  a life-and-death(名词+and+名词)struggle,bread-and-water wages,a cat-and-dog life,the question-and-answer method of teaching;hit-and-run accidents(动词+ and+动词), a wait-and-see policy,the live-and-let-live agreement,his eat-drink-and-be-merry philosophy
  
  10.从句
  
  1578 作定语的从句若要放在它所修饰的名词之前,必须加连字号或引号:
  
  his I-told-you-so attitude;this “I am sure to fail”idea;a the-king-can-do-no-wrong politician;the “do what you can and take what you want” theory;the I-want-to-be-alone theory;their “money is everything” philosophy
     
  B.用在名词后的限制性定语
  
  1579 有8种不同类型的限制性定语需要放在它们所修饰的名词的后面。11.一串形容词,或有自己修饰语的形容词
  
  1580 一串形容词或有自己修饰语的形容词需要放在它们所修饰的名词后面,因为它们比较长:
  
  He had a remarkable character,cold,odd and proud(比 a cold,odd,and proud remarkable character 更自然).This artist, haggard, poor but resolute,will not live on charity.Lily is a dog,intelligent and active,obedient and gentle.It is a road, dusty,wet,rugged but exciting.(形容词+形容词+形容词)
  
  He is a kind man and a learned(a kind and learned man较常见). He keeps a black dog and a white. They are kind men and learned. He keeps some black dogs and white.They advocate free speech and fearless.(书面语)
  
  He has a temper extremely dangerous(or an extremely dangerous temper).It is a method wonderfully efficient.Nearby is a jungle terribly wild.(副词+形容词)
  
  It is a problem the most difficult.In this small country there is a city the busiest I ever saw.I am sorry he did it in a way the least understandable. I believe pain ever the severest can be relieved.(the+最高级形容词)
  
  He is in a state similar(or a similar state) to mine.It is a condition unfavourable to the enterprise.He is not a man ashamed of his folly.That is an opinion contrary to mine.A man often forgetful of his promise will never succeed.He is interested in customs peculiar to Japanese. That is a place famous for its sausages.(形容词+介词短语)
  
  也可以说:It is an unfavourable condition to the enterprise.That is a contrary opinion to mine.但不可以说: He is not an ashamed man of his folly.
  
  He is a writer eighty years old.There is in this province a road five hundred miles long. We swam in a river twenty feet deep.It is a mountain over 3000 feet high.(数词+名词+形容词)
  
  He is a boy anxious to learn.He is a man ready to die for justice. A man afraid to make enemies is a man afraid to make friends.I like books easy to digest. It is a situation too grave to save.This is a book good enough to teach us morals.(形容词+不定式)
  
     
  12.特殊组合中的单个形容词
  
  1581 单个形容词一般不能用在所修饰的名词后面,但在下面这类特殊组合中可以用在名词后面。
  
  a.用来表示强调、庄严口吻、或对比的形容词:
  
  May I help you,Lilian dear?I love you,my lady sweet.Is a life deathless possible?Our life on the island is joy eternal.They advocate love inviolate.I believe in God Ommipresent.Lord Paramount will give the final judgement.He is a devil incarnate. He is more interested in mistakes past than in improvement future. Money unspent is money useless.
  
  b.用在 things,matters或 something这类词后的形容词:He neglects things temporal. I do not like matters(or affairs) political.There is something(or nothing, every-thing)interesting in the show.
  
  c.以-able或- ible 结尾的形容词(在名词前可能有最高级,only,main等词):
  
  It is the greatest novel imaginable. We use every means conceivable. That is the only(or main,chief, principal) vehicle available in this area.
  
  That is the best method possible(or the best possible method). In this desert this is the only herb edible. I think that is the last city defensible.
  
  There are thieves uncountable(=that cannot be counted).There is a gulf impassable. He has gone through torments inexpressible(=that cannot be expressed).
  
  (但 suitable,seasonable,reasonable及类似的词不能用在所修饰名词的后面,因为它们没有“that can be suited”,“that can be seasoned”这类意思。)
  
  d.用来代替序数词的基数词:
  
  Chapter Four= the fourth chapter.
  
  Book Five= the fifth book
  
  Class Two= the second class
  
  Number Five= the fifth
  
  Room 152; page 636; Prisoner No. 1689.
  
  e.用在“like, as或 with+名词”后的形容词:
  
  He lay on the ground like(or as) a man dead. He laughed and cried like(or as) a man crazy. He greeted me with his arms open. He arrived home with his pockets empty.He confessed his guilt with his face pale.
  
  f.起补语作用的形容词:
  
  The only man alive(= that is alive) is John. There was nobody awake to discover the burglary. John alone can do nothing for anyone. There is a rumour afloat.
  
  g.用在专有名词后构成头衔的形容词:
  
  Alexander the Great.Henry the Eighth,Richard the Lionhearted, Charles the Bald, MacCarthy the older, John the Short.
  
  h.法律名词(来自法语)里的形容词:
  
  The Consul General,the Governor General,the Attorney General, the president elect, the bishop elect(or designate), the Prince Regent(or royal), the envoy extraordinary, a knight errant, the heir apparent(or presumptive), the bride elect, the notary public, the poet laureate, the lords temporal(or spiritual), the court martial; the price current, the right divine,fee simple,his sign manual.
  
  
  13.地点或时间副词
  
  1582 the house opposite,the statement below, people inside, the bridge there(or here), Heaven above , a hotel hard by,a trip north, our life abroad,the distance across,16 feet square, a day off(duty), an evening off, the student off for school( or home from school),rents downtown,the only house around for miles.
  
  in January next(or last), on Friday next(or last),on the day following(or following day), in time past, from(or since) time immemorial,in years gone by, many nights previous(=ago, before), on a day certain(=fixed), the trend now, the world today and tomorrow.

  
  14.介词短语
  
  1583 a.介词+名词
  
  ?名词+[of+名词]=形容词+名词:
  
  He is a man of honour(= honourable man), a man of fortune(or character,fashion, sense, letters, parts,few words). This is an act of cowardice(=cowardly act), a mountain of great height(= very high mountain),a matter of no importance(= unimportant matter),a child without home(=homeless child).
  
  ?名词+[介词+名词]=名词+定语从句:
  
  Do you see the man at the door(= who is at the door)? Pass me the book on the desk(=which is on the desk).I went to the shop opposite the post office. She is a girl with curly hair.It is a rumour without foundation.
  
  ?[名词+介词]+名词(参阅 1243):
  
  He is a specialist in chest diseases(He specializes in chest diseases). Her anxiety about your safety is unnecessary ( She is very anxious about your safety).He expressed dissatisfaction with my work.He took delight in the study of dogs.There was an attempt on his life.
  
  ?名词+[介词+名词](参阅1243):
  
  Fruits in season are delicious and cheap.Ideas behind the times should be thrown
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